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01 January 2008 @ 02:02 pm

[edit] Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic (VAK and VARK)

One family of models emphasizes the sensory modalities of informing stimuli. The models in this family may use different terms to describe same or similar learning styles. These models often describe three basic learning styles: [1]

  • Auditory learning occurs through hearing the spoken word.
  • Kinesthetic learning occurs through doing, touching and interacting.
  • Visual learning occurs through images, demonstrations and body language.
  • Read/write (R) learning occurs through reading and writing.

In such models, the term multi-modal



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The cerebellum is largely responsible for coordinating the unconscious aspects of proprioception.
The cerebellum is largely responsible for coordinating the unconscious aspects of proprioception.

Proprioception (pronounced /ˌproʊpriːəˈsɛpʃən/ PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun); from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own" and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. Unlike the six exteroceptive senses (sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing, and balance) by which we perceive the outside world, and interoceptive senses, by which we perceive the pain and the stretching of internal organs, proprioception is a third distinct sensory modality that provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally. It is the sense that indicates whether the body is moving with required effort, as well as where the various parts of the body are located in relation to each other.


Kinesthetic learning

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Kinesthetic learning is a teaching and learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. Students with this predominant learning style are natural discovery learners; they have realizations through doing, as opposed to having thought first before initiating action.

[edit] Incidence

While visual learners account for around 30% of the population and auditory learners account for around 25% of the population, Kinesthetic learners may account for around 45% of the population.[1]

[edit] Features of kinesthetic learners

Kinesthetic learners may be restless or hyperactive when feeling understimulated in educational setting reliant on visual or verbal learning styles. Without movement they may struggle to maintain attention and so may be more susceptible to diagnoses such as ADD or ADHD.[2] Kinesthetic learners (unless they also have a movement or motor planning disorder such as dyspraxia) may have a highly developed sense of balance, timing and body movement and work well in physical and manual tasks.[3] Examples of kinesthetic learning include building dioramas, physical models or participating in role-playing or historical reenactment. Other examples include the kindergarten practice of having children perform various motions from left to right in preparation for reading education.

[edit] Applications

Movement has long been used as an aid to mnemonics, as with the right-hand rule in physics. Pedagogical theorists such as Howard Gardner, however, assert that understanding of space and motion well is a distinct kind of intelligence in itself, useful in such various fields as engineering, database design, and athletics such as martial arts or dance. Some proponents of kinesthetic learning see it primarily as a way to increase association through repetition, but some proponents of "educational kinesthetics" such as Brain Gym asserts that certain physical motions increase the density of neurological networks within the brain itself, especially when practiced by growing children. The ability to maintain awareness of one's own physical position in space is sometimes called proprioception.

[edit] Differentiated Thinking Styles

Related thinking styles and learning styles are visual (learning through visuals and visualization) and verbal (learning through words and thinking in words), and less commonly, aural (musical thinking associated with rote aural patterning) and logical (mathematical and systems thinking in which one thinks in categories and relationships between factors).[4]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Spence, Muneera U. "Graphic Design: Collaborative Processes = Understanding Self and Others." (lecture) Art 325: Collaborative Processes. Fairbanks Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 13 Apr. 2006.
  2. ^ Ricki Linksman, National Reading Diagnostics Institute (2007). The Fine Line Between ADHD and Kinesthetic Learners (English). Association for Comprehensive NeutoTherapy. Retrieved on September 20, 2007.
  3. ^ Pennsylvania State University. Kinesthetic Learners (English). Pennsylvania State University - York. Retrieved on September 20, 2007.
  4. ^ Learning Styles Online. Overview of Learning Styles (English). Learning Styles Online. Retrieved on September 20, 2007.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links


Kinesthetic Learners

Characteristics of Kinesthetic Learners

Kinesthetic learners learn best by moving their bodies, activating their large or small muscles as they learn. These are the "hands-on learners" or the "doers" who actually concentrate better and learn more easily when movement is involved. The following characteristics are often associated with kinesthetic learners.

1. Kinesthetic learners often wiggle, tap their feet, or move their legs when they sit.

2. Kinesthetic learners were often labeled "hyperactive" as children.

3. Because they learn through movement, kinesthetic learners often do well as performers: athletes, actors, or dancers.

4. Kinesthetic learners work well with their hands. They may be good at repairing work, sculpting, art, or working with various tools.

5. Kinesthetic learners are often well coordinated and have a strong sense of timing and body movement.